学习了解 java 引用类型, 并应用到实际需求

java 数据类型介绍

java 中数据类型分为: 基本类型, 引用类型

基本类型:

四类八种, 分为整型(byte short int long), 浮点型(double, float), 布尔型(boolean), 字符型(char), 对于基本类型来说, 其值与引用地址都存在栈中, 栈对应的值, 就是该变量的实际值

基本类型的存储形式有利于编译器优化, exp: a=1;b=1; a 先初始化, b 则会指向 a, 当 b=2; 时, jvm 会寻找当前栈有没有等于 2 的引用, 有则重复上述步骤, 无则新建字面量 2 并赋予 b; 因为基本类型声明周期跟随当前线程, 所以提高了 jvm 的运行效率(省去内存回收, 以及对象逃逸分析)

void 也是基本类型, 但是不可以直接操作, 其也有对应的包装类: Void

引用类型(对象):

引用类型相对于基本类型来说, 其引用对应的值为当前对象在堆内存的 hash 地址, 变量一旦声明之后, 就不可以在更改类型(可以强转, 哈哈)

数组 也是引用类型

二者的区别:

基本数据类型在栈中进行分配, 而对象类型在堆中进行分配
所有方法的参数都是在传递引用而非本身的值    基本类型例外
对象之间的赋值只是传递引用,基本类型之间的赋值则先搜索, 有则更改引用, 无在赋值

引用类型的分类

在 java 中, 规定了四种引用类型, 其自身的特性决定了当前引用被 GC 的时机以及代码应用领域

强引用 Strong Reference

在编码过程中, 默认使用的就是该类型的引用, 其特性为如果一个对象引用到 GC Roots 对象可达时, 该对象无法被 GC(即便是 OOM)

软引用 Soft Reference

阻止 GC 能力稍弱, 当软引用到 GC Roots 对象可达时, 将暂时不会被回收, 直到内存不足或不可达时, 才会被回收, 一般来说, 可用作缓存, 即有用但非必须的数据存储

弱引用 Weak Reference

与软引用应用场景类似, 但无法阻止 GC, 当垃圾回收线程扫描到该引用时且GC Roots不可达时, 将会回收它的内存, 弱引用可以配合引用队列联合使用, 当弱引用被回收时, 其引用会添加到引用队列中(ReferenceQueue)

虚引用 Phantom Reference

无法知晓声明周期, 也无法通过引用获得该对象, 其随时可能会被回收, 必须与引用队列配合使用, 以便知晓其是否被回收

exp:

看一看 WeakHashMap 的实际应用(摘自 openfire 源码, 对我有很大的启发)

首先在该类中定义一个 Collections.synchronizedMap(new WeakHashMap<>()); 此代码为同步模式的WeakHashMap, 具体实现可以看看源码, 很简单

然后在该类中定义一个内部类, 实现了 AutoCloseable 接口, 可以在 try 代码块自动关闭, 在构造外部类时, 实例化该内部类, 在调用 lock 方法时, 传入外部类实例

查看该类的构造函数可以看出, 它是需要传入一个 source 标识以及 class 类型的, 这表示, 你可以在任何的类中使用此类来给指定的资源上锁, 很巧妙, 避免了重复在代码中自己去实现锁

同时, 使用唯一资源标识当做 key, 把锁存储在了 WeakHashMap 中, 其中涉及到俩个知识点

1. key 生成使用 String.intern(); 可以保证 key 永远指向常量池地址, intern 方法 1.6 之前与 1.7 之后又一些区别, 具体可看本博客另外介绍文章
2. 使用外部类持有该 key, 可以保证 key 在不为 null 时 (unlock 时会把 key 设置为 null), 无法被 GC, 具体原理看最下边的实验小节

点我跳转到实验小节

当使用 close 时, 把 key 设置为 null, 以便于 GC, 如果在下次 GC 之前, 使用同样的资源标识获取 lock, 那么会返回同样的 lock 对象, 如果没有, 则走computeIfAbsent方法, 此方法为如果 key 不存在时, 调用传入的 function 函数, 并把该函数返回值当做值, 传入的 key 当做键, 存储到当前 MAP 中(就相当于, 有则返回, 没有则put, 再返回)

package org.jivesoftware.util;

import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Optional;
import java.util.WeakHashMap;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantLock;

/**
 * A {@link ReentrantLock} lock that can be unlocked using an {@link AutoCloseable}. This allows for easy locking of
 * resources, using a specific class as a namespace. Typical usage:
 * <pre>
 *     try (final AutoCloseableReentrantLock.AutoCloseableLock ignored = new AutoCloseableReentrantLock(Clazz.class, user.getUsername()).lock()) {
 *         user.performNonThreadSafeTask();
 *     }
 * </pre>
 * <p>
 * This essentially has the same effect as:
 * <pre>
 *     synchronised ((Clazz.class.getName() + user.getUsername()).intern()) {
 *         user.performNonThreadSafeTask();
 *     }
 * </pre>
 * <p>
 * but has advantages in that the current status of the lock can interrogated, the lock can be acquired interruptibly, etc.
 */
public class AutoCloseableReentrantLock {

    // This is a WeakHashMap - when there are no references to the key, the entry will be removed
    private static final Map<String, ReentrantLock> LOCK_MAP = Collections.synchronizedMap(new WeakHashMap<>());
    private final ReentrantLock lock;
    private final AutoCloseableLock autoCloseable;
    private String key;

    /**
     * Create a class and resource specific lock. If another thread has not closed another AutoCloseableReentrantLock
     * with the same class and resource then this will block until it is closed.
     *
     * @param clazz    The class for which the lock should be created.
     * @param resource The resource for which the lock should be created.
     */
    public AutoCloseableReentrantLock(final Class clazz, final String resource) {
        key = (clazz.getName() + '#' + resource).intern();
        lock = LOCK_MAP.computeIfAbsent(key, missingKey -> new ReentrantLock());
        autoCloseable = new AutoCloseableLock(this);
    }

    private synchronized void close() throws IllegalMonitorStateException {
        lock.unlock();
        // Clear the reference to the key so the GC can remove the entry from the WeakHashMap if no-one else has it
        if (!lock.isHeldByCurrentThread()) {
            key = null;
        }
    }

    private synchronized void checkNotReleased() throws IllegalStateException {
        if (key == null) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Lock has already been released");
        }
    }

    /**
     * Acquires the lock, blocking indefinitely.
     *
     * @return An AutoCloseableLock
     * @throws IllegalStateException if this lock has already been released by the last thread to hold it
     */
    public AutoCloseableLock lock() throws IllegalStateException {
        checkNotReleased();
        lock.lock();
        return autoCloseable;
    }

    /**
     * Tries to acquire the lock, returning immediately.
     *
     * @return An AutoCloseableLock if the lock was required, otherwise empty.
     * @throws IllegalStateException if this lock has already been released by the last thread to hold it
     */
    public Optional<AutoCloseableLock> tryLock() {
        checkNotReleased();
        if (lock.tryLock()) {
            return Optional.of(autoCloseable);
        } else {
            return Optional.empty();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Acquires the lock, blocking until the lock is acquired or the thread is interrupted.
     *
     * @return An AutoCloseableLock
     * @throws InterruptedException  if the thread was interrupted before the lock could be acquired
     * @throws IllegalStateException if this lock has already been released by the last thread to hold it
     */
    public AutoCloseableLock lockInterruptibly() throws InterruptedException, IllegalStateException {
        checkNotReleased();
        lock.lockInterruptibly();
        return autoCloseable;
    }

    /**
     * Queries if this lock is held by the current thread.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if current thread holds this lock and {@code false} otherwise
     * @see ReentrantLock#isHeldByCurrentThread()
     */
    public boolean isHeldByCurrentThread() {
        return lock.isHeldByCurrentThread();
    }

    /**
     * Queries if this lock is held by any thread. This method is
     * designed for use in monitoring of the system state,
     * not for synchronization control.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if any thread holds this lock and {@code false} otherwise
     * @see ReentrantLock#isLocked()
     */
    public boolean isLocked() {
        return lock.isLocked();
    }

    public static final class AutoCloseableLock implements AutoCloseable {

        private final AutoCloseableReentrantLock lock;

        private AutoCloseableLock(final AutoCloseableReentrantLock lock) {
            this.lock = lock;
        }

        /**
         * Releases the lock.
         *
         * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if the current thread does not hold the lock.
         */
        @Override
        public void close() throws IllegalMonitorStateException {
            lock.close();
        }
    }

}

关于弱引用的一个小实验

demo1 的 key 得不到释放, 因为其所在对象被外部 list 持有 demo2 的 key 可以被 GC, 因为其所在对象到 GC ROOTS 不可达(没有被其他对象持有, new 之后就结束了短暂的一声)

/*
 * Copyright (c) 2020. www.gomyck.com. All rights reserved.
 */

package reference;

import org.junit.Test;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.WeakHashMap;

/**
 * @author gomyck
 * @version 1.0.0
 * @contact qq: 474798383
 * @blog https://blog.gomyck.com
 */
public class Demo {

    private String key;

    @Test
    public void demo1() {
        int totalNum = 10000;
        List<Demo> list = new ArrayList<>();
        WeakHashMap<String, Object> w = new WeakHashMap<>();
        for(int i=0;i<totalNum;i++){
            Demo d = new Demo();
            list.add(d);
            d.key = ("xxx" + i).intern();
            w.put(d.key, new Object());
            System.gc();
            System.out.println(w.size());
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void demo2() {
        int totalNum = 10000;
        WeakHashMap<String, Object> w = new WeakHashMap<>();
        for(int i=0;i<totalNum;i++){
            Demo d = new Demo();
            d.key = ("xxx" + i).intern();
            w.put(d.key, new Object());
            System.gc();
            System.out.println(w.size());
        }
    }

}



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